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Interview Tech Interview 2012 by Accenture

Details of Interview Tech Interview 2012 by Accenture conducted by Accenture for job interview.
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Which is the parameter that is added to every non-static member function when it is called?

Answer: ,this, pointer

What is a binary semaphore? What is its use?

Answer:

A binary semaphore is one, which takes only 0 and 1 as values. They are used to implement mutual exclusion and synchronize concurrent processes.

What is thrashing?

Answer:

It is a phenomenon in virtual memory schemes when the processor spends most of its time swapping pages, rather than executing instructions. This is due to an inordinate number of page faults.

What are turnaround time and response time?

Answer:

Turnaround time is the interval between the submission of a job and its completion. Response time is the interval between submission of a request, and the first response to that request.

What is data structure?

Answer: A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the items stored, but also their relationship to each other. Advance knowledge about the relationship between data items allows designing of efficient algorithms for the manipulation of data.

List out the areas in which data structures are applied extensively?

Answer: The name of areas are:

Compiler Design,
Operating System,
Database Management System,
Statistical analysis package,
Numerical Analysis,
Graphics,
Artificial Intelligence,
Simulation

What are the major data structures used in the following areas : RDBMS, Network data model & Hierarchical data model.

Answer: The major data structures used are as follows:

RDBMS - Array (i.e. Array of structures)
Network data model - Graph
Hierarchical data model - Trees

What is the data structures used to perform recursion?

Answer: Stack. Because of its LIFO (Last In First Out) property it remembers its ,caller, so knows whom to return when the function has to return. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return addresses of the function calls.

Every recursive function has its equivalent iterative (non-recursive) function. Even when such equivalent iterative procedures are written, explicit stack is to be used.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

void main()
{
int const * p=5;
printf("%d",++(*p));
}

Answer:

Compiler error: Cannot modify a constant value.

Explanation: p is a pointer to a "constant integer". But we tried to change the value of the "constant integer".

main()
{
char s[ ]="man";
int i;
for(i=0;s[ i ];i++)
printf("\n%c%c%c%c",s[ i ],*(s+i),*(i+s),i[s]);
}

Answer:

mmmm
aaaa
nnnn

Explanation:s[i], *(i+s), *(s+i), i[s] are all different ways of expressing the same idea. Generally array name is the base address for that array. Here s is the base address. i is the index number/displacement from the base address. So, indirecting it with * is same as s[i]. i[s] may be surprising. But in the case of C it is same as s[i].

main()
{
float me = 1.1;
double you = 1.1;
if(me==you)
printf("I love U");
else
printf("I hate U");
}

Answer:

I hate U

Explanation: For floating point numbers (float, double, long double) the values cannot be predicted exactly. Depending on the number of bytes, the precession with of the value represented varies. Float takes 4 bytes and long double takes 10 bytes. So float stores 0.9 with less precision than long double.

Rule of Thumb:

Never compare or at-least be cautious when using floating point numbers with relational operators (== , >,