The North Eastern was formed on 14th April 1952 by combining two Railway systems (Oudh and Tirhut Railway and Assam Railway) and Cawnpore-Achnera section of the BB&CIR. It was bifurcated into two Railway Zones on 15th Jan. 1958 – North Eastern Railway and North East Frontier Railway. The present N. E. Railway (NER), after re-organisation of Railway Zones in 2002, comprises of three Divisions - Varanasi, Lucknow & Izatnagar. NER has 3450 route kms with 486 stations. NER primarily serves the areas of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarkhand & western districts of Bihar.
This Railway, being a passenger oriented system, provides reliable transportation facility to the people of Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Western Bihar and also gives and impetus to the socio-economic and cultural development of the region. This Railway also caters to the transportation needs of neighbouring country Nepal.
The North Eastern Railway system passes through the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Uttarakhand and runs from West to East. Most of the system is situated north of river Ganga and traverses through basin of river Ganga and touches Nepal border at number of places such as Nepalganj Road, Barhni, Nautanwa. A number of rivers originating in Nepal such as Sharda, Ghaghra, Rapti, Gandak and its various tributaries pass through areas served by this Railway.
Major rivers like Ganga, Gomti, Saryu, etc. cut across the railway system at a number of places. As these rivers are prone to flash floods, many sections of the N.E Railway are vulnerable and are prone to breaches in the rainy season. This Railway is famous for the bridges across the various rivers, each of which is an Engineering masterpiece.
North Eastern Railway is primarily a passenger oriented system which serves western Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It passes through major tourist and cultural centres like Varanasi, Sarnath, Lucknow, Allahabad, Kushinagar, Gorakhpur, Lumbini, Ayodhya, Maghar, Mathura etc.
There are 493 stations, two Mechanical workshops (one each at Gorakhpur and Izatnagar), two diesel sheds (one each at Gonda and Izatnagar), one Engineering workshop at Gorakhpur and one Signal workshop at Gorakhpur, on this Railway.